Pollution of air, water, and soil with carcinogenic chemicals contributes to the cancer burden to differing degrees depending on the geographical settings. Exposure to smoke from industry, vehicles, pesticides, and insecticide sprays are all important causes of environmental pollution.
Outdoor air pollution is classified as carcinogenic, or cancer-causing, for humans. It has been estimated that outdoor air pollution contributed to 3.2 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 including more than 200,000 lung cancer deaths globally.
Additionally, over 4 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to the household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels, 6% of these deaths are from lung cancer globally. Indoor air pollution from coal fires doubles the risk of lung cancer, particularly among non-smoking women.